ICT in Education Toolkit
Version 2.0
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ICTs for Education: Resources
1 Background
2 The Potential of ICTs
  Expanding Educational Opportunities & Increasing Efficiency
  Enhancing Quality of Learning
  Enhancing Quality of Teaching
  Faciliating Skill Formulation
  Sustaining Lifelong Learning
  Improving Policy Planning and Management
  Advancing Community Linkages
3 From Potential to Effectiveness

ICTs for Education: A Reference Handbook
1 Decision Makers Essentials
2 Analytical Review
3 Resources
4 PowerPoint Presentation
  2.6 Improving Policy Planning and Management

Resource 2.6.1 - Sample List of EMIS Software [48]

Sample List of EMIS Software

Name and Contact Area Sample Functions Country of Origin Comments
Education Management Systems 


Integrated School & District Software Finance,
School Lunches,
Student Records,
USA Small, medium size schools & districts
Class Act Software 


Integrated School Software Student Records,
Teacher Pay,
Class Attendance
USA Small, medium sized schools
TASS-Alpha School System 


Integrated School Software Student Records,
Teacher Pay,
Class Attendance,
Student Accounts
Australia Used primarily in Australia, variable school sizes


School Student Software Student Records,
Class Attendance,
Parent Contact
USA Supports instructional activity best
ABT Campus 


Integrated School Software Student Records,
Class Attendance,
Business Management
USA Extensive use of the Web for interfaces
Rediker Software 


Integrated School Software Student Records,
Class Attendance,
Counseling Records, Business Management
USA/ Europe Worldwide application, oriented to educators needs


Integrated School Software Student Admissions,
Records, Billing,
Business Management,
Facilities Management
IBM-Solutions for Schools 


School Software, Selected District Software Various USA/ Worldwide Various semi-custom solutions
Computer Associates 


District, Regional, National, Single Function Software Finance/Accounting,
Human Resources,
USA/ European Requires a Systems Integrator to link large systems
MSA Inc. 


National, Provincial, Single Function Software Human Resources, Inventory, Textbook Management USA/ Worldwide Requires Systems Integrator to link large systems
PeopleSoft, Inc. 


National, Provincial Semi-Integrated Software Human Resources,
Student Records
USA/ Europe Requires Systems Integrator to install.


National, Provincial, Regional, District Integrated Software Information reporting on Students, Human Resources, Financial Summaries, Facilities, Textbooks USA Planning & management oriented EMIS. Links to existing school system.
SCT Solutions 


National , School Integrated Software-also Higher Education Students, Human Resources, Finances, Inventory, Class Scheduling USA/ Europe Higher Education oriented. Large user base.
Campus America 


School Integrated Software-Higher Education Student Records, Human Resources, Finances, Inventory, Class Attendance, Store Management USA Higher Education oriented. Medium sized institutions

Resource 2.6.2 Examples of Structured Simulations [49]

Structured simulations use algorithms to simulate how a system operates, and users' choices and possible outputs are specified in advance. The following four models exemplify of this kind of simulation:

APEX (Assessing Policies for Educational Excellence) [50]

The underlying model shows the effects of decisions about class size, teacher training, and other inputs on enrollments, costs, and school quality. The simulation was developed initially to assist the opposition to the apartheid government of South Africa to anticipate the consequences of government-proposed education reforms. After the transition to a democratic government, APEX was used extensively to educate citizen groups on what reasonably could be expected from various policy reforms.

EPICS [51]

This model runs as a table game in which the players' decisions are scored by an underlying computer model that calculates the impact of allocations on educational indicators, such as enrollment, class size, gender equity, and internal efficiency, as well as indicators of economic growth, public health, and population growth. Players represent the staff of a ministry of education charged with resource allocation through the annual budget. Normally, the simulation takes players through five rounds of annual budgets. External "events" that occur in several rounds require players to reconsider the strategies they are developing.

REDUC (Latin American Network of Centers of Educational Research) [52]

REDUC has produced six policy analysis simulations, which combine structured and unstructured elements. Players assume roles within a government agency and must negotiate with other actors to determine allocation of scarce resources. An underlying mathematical model generates system responses to these allocations, which then stimulate further negotiations. (See "Using Technology to Manage Education Information" in TechKnowLogia for more information on REDUC.) [53]


DECIDE is a computer-based simulation to be used by teams that discuss where to locate decision making to solve the problem presented by the computer. The sequences of situations that follow correspond to the school calendar and are responsive to the participants' choices. Each new situation provides text evaluating the previous choice in terms of whether it solves the initial problem or generates new ones. The participants' progress is "scored" in reference to whether they are able to keep up with the school calendar.

48 Kurt Moses &Vivian Toro. January/February 2001. "Education Management Information Systems (EMIS): Available Software and Guidelines for Selection." TechKnowLogia. Available at: www.TechKnowLogia.org
49 Excerpted from: Noel F. McGinn. January/February 2001. "Computer Simulations and Policy Analysis." TechKnowLogia. Available at: www.TechKnowLogia.org
50 F. H. Healey. 1984. "Policy Support in South Africa: An Emerging Paradigm." The Forum for Advancing Basic Education and Literacy, 3(4).
51 Claire Brown, Haroona Jatoi, and Christina Rawley. Revised 1998. Education Policy Simulation (EPICS): A Decision-Making Model to Improve Access to Schooling. Creative Associates International and Harvard Institute for International Development,. Jeanne Moulton. 1998. Uganda's Primary Education System: A Model of Sustainable Reform (brochure). Washington, DC: Academy for Educational Development.
52 Heuristica educativa. Santiago: UNESCO/OREALC, 1998
53 http://www.techknowlogia.org/TKL_active_pages2/CurrentArticles/t-right.asp?IssueNumber=9&ArticleID=228
54 T. Welsh & N. McGinn. 1999. DECIDE: A Simulation of Relocating Decision Making in Education Systems (Version 4) [CD]. Washington DC: Academy for Educational Development.


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